The 23andMe® Personal Genome Service analyses a subset of your DNA, across all of your chromosomes and the mitochondria. The pieces of DNA analysed are called SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). 23andMe customers provide saliva samples which are analysed by laboratories that meet local regulations, and the results are returned to their online account in approximately 6-8 weeks from when your sample is received at the laboratory.
23andMe provides both health and ancestry information in a single service for a single price. In addition to the features below, you also have access to 23andMe Tools, such as DNA Relatives and the ability to browse and download your raw genotyped data.
Genetic Health Risk (4)
The 23andMe Genetic Health Risk reports tell you if you have genetic variants associated with an increased risk of developing certain health conditions - such as Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease* or Parkinson's Disease*. While having a particular variant can be linked to a higher risk for a condition, it does not necessarily mean you will develop the condition. It is important to remember that these reports do not cover all possible genetic variants that could influence risk for these conditions and that other non-genetic factors, such as environment and lifestyle, can also influence risk for these conditions.
Carrier Status (40+)
The 23andMe Carrier Status reports tell you about variants that may not affect your health, but could affect the health of your future family. Being a "carrier" means you "carry" one genetic variant for a condition. Carriers do not typically have the genetic condition, but they can pass a genetic variant down to their children. Understanding your carrier status helps you work with your doctor to prepare for the health of your future family.
The 23andMe Wellness reports can help you make more informed choices that may relate to healthy living. Find out how your DNA influences your caffeine consumption, lactose digestion and your muscle type.
Our Traits reports are a fun way to explore how your DNA makes you unique, from your food preferences to physical features. Keep in mind that many traits are influenced by multiple factors. Traits may be influenced to varying degrees by genetics and the environment. This category includes traits like eye colour and hair texture.
Find out what your genetics say about your ancestry. By analysing your DNA, we can uncover information about your recent ancestry, the origins of your maternal lineage and paternal lineage (males only), and even your Neanderthal ancestry. Each Ancestry report looks at a unique aspect of your family story. You can learn more about how your DNA is used in our Ancestry reports, by selecting the different types of DNA:
- Autosomal DNA (chromosomes 1-22)
- X chromosome
- Y chromosome (males only)
- Mitochondrial DNA
Autosomal DNA (chromosomes 1-22)
Autosomal DNA refers to the 22 non-sex chromosomes, which makes up the bulk of your genome. For each pair of these chromosomes one comes from your mother and the other from your father: two copies of the same recipe with slightly different ingredients. The autosomes - along with the X sex chromosome - are what we use to determine your DNA Relatives, your Ancestry Composition results, and many other features.
Since you inherited sections of your autosomal DNA from all your recent ancestors, this type of DNA is used to tell you about your recent ancestry. Your autosomal DNA is also used to tell you about your Neanderthal ancestry. The analysis of the 22 autosomes is the same for women and men and provides the same information and level of detail.
The X chromosome and Y chromosome are referred to as sex chromosomes because they determine if you are female (XX) or male (XY). Women inherited two copies of the X chromosome - one from each parent - while men inherited one X chromosome from their mother and one Y chromosome from their father.
You inherited sections of your X chromosome DNA from particular ancestors on your family tree. This type of DNA is used along with your autosomal DNA to tell you about your recent ancestry and your Neanderthal ancestry.
The X chromosome and Y chromosome are referred to as sex chromosomes because they determine if you are female (XX) or male (XY). Men inherited one Y from their father and one X from their mother. Women did not inherit a Y chromosome. This type of DNA is used to tell men about the origins of their patrilineal (your father's father's father's) line.
Women can learn about this ancestry from the haplogroup assignment of their father, brother or paternal uncle. Depending on the information you would like to learn, one relative might be preferable:
Haplogroups are one small part of your ancestry analysis. The 23andMe Personal Genome Service provides you with information from all branches of your family tree using your autosomal DNA.
All of us have mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Since your mitochondrial DNA is inherited intact from your mother - and she received it from her mother, and so on - it can shed light on the ancient origins of your maternal ancestors. Maternal haplogroups are families of mitochondrial DNA types that all trace back to a single mutation at a specific place and time. By looking at the geographic distribution of mtDNA types, we learn how our ancestral female ancestors migrated throughout the world.
The majority of our ancestry features and tools use your autosomal DNA and X chromosome DNA to tell you about your recent ancestry across all branches of your family tree. 23andMe provides several methods to help you explore your recent ancestry:
- You can compare your DNA to that of other 23andMe users in the DNA Relatives feature and Share and Compare tool.
- You can view the comparison of your DNA to that of reference datasets in the Ancestry Composition report to learn about your geographic ancestry.
Maternal Lineage and Paternal Lineage Origins
Discover the origins of your matrilineal (your mother's mother's mother's) and patrilineal (your father's father's father's) ancestors and how they moved around the world over thousands of years in the Haplogroup reports. Haplogroups are assigned by finding the genetic variants that are unique to each group. These genetic variants typically originated tens of thousands of years ago. Women and men both receive the Maternal Haplogroup report based on their mitochondrial DNA; men also receive the Paternal Haplogroup* report based on their Y chromosomes.
*Paternal haplogroups are based on the Y chromosome, which females don't inherit. Women can learn about the origins of some of their ancestors from the paternal haplogroup assignment of male-line relatives, such as fathers, brothers, and paternal uncles. Please note that a woman's recent paternal ancestry is incorporated into the Ancestry Composition report.
Even though Neanderthals vanished about 40,000 years ago, their DNA lives on in us. Based on research, Neanderthals interbred with humans around 60,000 years ago. Our Neanderthal Ancestry feature will tell you how much of your ancestry can be traced back to Neanderthals using SNPs located across all of your autosomes and your X chromosome(s).
Your DNA Family
The 23andMe Your DNA Family report tells you about the diverse group of 23andMe customers who have DNA in common with you and how many of these DNA Relatives you have around the world. After viewing this report, you can connect with your genetic relatives in the DNA Relatives tool.
*The 23andMe PGS test uses qualitative genotyping to detect clinically relevant variants in the genomic DNA of adults from saliva collected using a collection device (Oragene·DX model OGD-500.001) for the purpose of reporting and interpreting genetic health risks and reporting carrier status. It is not intended to diagnose any disease. The relevance of each report varies based on ethnicity. Each genetic health risk report describes if a person has variants associated with a higher risk of developing a disease, but does not describe a person’s overall risk of developing the disease. These reports are not intended to tell you anything about your current state of health, or to be used to make medical decisions, including whether or not you should take a medication or how much of a medication you should take. Our carrier status reports can be used to determine carrier status, but cannot determine if you have two copies of any genetic variant. These carrier reports are not intended to tell you anything about your risk for developing a disease in the future or anything about the health of your fetus, or your newborn child's risk of developing a particular disease later in life. For Gaucher Disease Type 1, we provide a single report that includes information on both carrier status and genetic health risk. The Late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease genetic health risk report is indicated for reporting of the ε4 variant in the APOE gene and describes if a person has a variant associated with an increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. The ε4 variant included in this report is found and has been studied in many ethnicities. Detailed risk estimates have been studied the most in people of European descent. The Parkinson’s Disease genetic health risk report (i) is indicated for reporting of the G2019S variant in the LRRK2 gene, and the N370S variant in the GBA gene, (ii) describes if a person has variants associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, and (iii) is most relevant for people of European, Ashkenazi Jewish, and North African Berber descent.